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From 18 February to 30 April 2021, Cambridge Family Law conducted an online survey to shed light on the domestic and international surrogacy arena – why it is done, how it is done, and the issues that intended parents, surrogates, and governments alike must be aware of.

In doing so, the survey sought to understand the experiences of those who had become parents through surrogacy, as well as those intending to enter into a surrogacy arrangement in the future. It discussed such issues as motivation for surrogacy, choice of jurisdiction, finding a surrogate, whether an agent was used, and what costs and expenses were involved. Importantly, it also sought to elucidate the difficulties – both legal, and practical – that had been faced by intended parents during the surrogacy journey. In addition to these target groups, the survey also sought information from legal practitioners and surrogacy agencies about the difficulties they or their clients had encountered.

The resulting report highlights the fraught nature of the international surrogacy market, and the significant barriers that are faced by intended parents. It once again underlines the need for legal reform at the domestic level, as well as greater cooperation at the international level.


Read the report


This survey was undertaken as a part of a project funded by the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.

This report was prepared by independent researchers who are solely responsible for its content. It does not reflect HM Government policy. HM Government is not responsible for the information and views expressed in this report, or for any use which may be made of it. The publication of this report shall not constitute or be deemed to constitute any representation by HM Government.