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Conference final report

A Final Report from the Forum has been subsequently published. The intent of this report is not to provide a complete transcription, but rather to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions that occurred during the Forum session.

Major comparative study

JM Scherpe, C Fenton-Glynn and T Kaan (eds), Eastern and Western Perspectives on Surrogacy (Intersentia, 2019), 606 pp.

This book examines the phenomenon of surrogacy from a comparative perspective. Bringing together experts from 21 countries across the world, it provides a comprehensive discussion of the ways in which surrogacy is regulated in both Eastern and Western jurisdictions, and seeks to establish a common ground to move forward in this morally and legally difficult subject area. You can download the preface and table of contents.

The book contains contributions by Walter Pintens (Catholic University of Leuven), Anatol Dutta (Ludwig Maximillians University), Frank Klinkhammer (German Federal Court of Justice), Esther Farnós Amorós (Pompeu Fabra University), Mary Keyes (Griffith University), John Pascoe (Family Court of Australia), Sir Mark Hedley (England and Wales High Court (retired)), Eleni Zervogianni (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Rhona Schuz (Sha’arei Mishpat Academic Center), Julia Sloth-Nielsen (University of the Western Cape), Debra Wilson (University of Canterbury)¸ Rute Teixeira Pedro (University of Porto), Hrefna Friðriksdóttir (University of Iceland), Olga A. Khazova (Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences), Naomi Cahn (George Washington University), June Carbone (University of Minnesota), Paul Beaumont (University of Aberdeen), Katarina Trimmings (University of Aberdeen), Lei Shi (Southwest University of Political Science and Law), Chih-Hsing Ho (Academia Sinica), Daisy Cheung (University of Hong Kong), Shinichiro Hayakawa (University of Tokyo), Ock-Joo Kim (Seoul National University), Byung-Hwa Lee (Dongduk Women’s University), Prabha Kotiswaran (King’s College London), Soraj Hongladarom (Chulalongkorn University), Jens M. Scherpe (University of Cambridge), Claire Fenton-Glynn (University of Cambridge) and Terry Kaan (University of Hong Kong).

Previous Conferences organised by Cambridge Family Law on surrogacy

List of delegates of the 2019 International Surrogacy Forum.

Contributions by speakers

Jens M. Scherpe, University of Cambridge/University of Hong Kong/University of Aalborg

Professor Nick Hopkins, Law Commission of England and Wales

The Law Commission of England and Wales and the Scottish Law Commission published their joint consultation paper on surrogacy entitled "Building families through surrogacy: a new law" on 6 June 2019 (shorter summary).

Anatol Dutta, LMU Munich, Germany

Caroline Mécary, Avocate aux barreaux de Paris et du Québec, Paris/France

Mennesson Family

The MENNESSON family, whose surrogacy journey in the USA has resulted in a 19-year battle to secure the recognition of their family in France.  In 2006, they created Association Clara, which now has over 2000 members.  This association defends all children born through surrogacy and promotes legalization of Surrogacy in France.

Claire Fenton Glynn, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Book chapters:


  • C Fenton-Glynn, "What price a child? Recovering damages in tort for international surrogacy" (2017) 47(12) Family Law
  • C Fenton-Glynn, "International Surrogacy before the European Court of Human Rights" (2017) 13(3) Journal of Private International Law 546
  • C Fenton-Glynn, "Outsourcing Ethical Dilemmas: Regulating International Surrogacy Arrangements" (2016) 24(1) Medical Law Review 59
  • C Fenton-Glynn, "Reinterpreting s54 HFEA: How far is too far?" (2016) 46(6) Family Law
  • C Fenton-Glynn, "The Regulation and Recognition of Surrogacy in English Law" (2015) 27(1) Child and Family Law Quarterly 83
  • C Fenton-Glynn, "Human Rights and Private International Law: Regulating International Surrogacy" (2014) 10(1) Journal of Private International Law 157

Colin Rogerson, Dawson Cornwell, London, United Kingdom

Courtney G. Joslin, UC Davis School of Law, California, USA

  • Courtney G. Joslin, Shannon P. Minter, and Catherine Sakimura, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Family Law
  • Courtney G. Joslin, Nurturning Parenthood Through the UPA (2017), 127 Yale L.J. F. 589 (2018).
  • Courtney G. Joslin, Preface to the UPA (2017), Fam. L.Q. (forthcoming).

Steve Snyder, Steven H. Snyder & Associates, Minnesota, USA

Erika Fuchs, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA

Julia Sloth-Nielsen, University of Western Cape, South Africa/University of Leiden, The Netherlands

Robynne Friedman, Robynne Friedman Attorneys, Johannesburg, South Africa

Centre for Family Research, Susan Golombok and Vasanti Jadva, University of Cambridge

Open access papers on surrogacy from the Centre for Family Research

(all papers available for download in one file)

  • Golombok S, Blake L, Casey P, Roman G, Jadva V. (2013). Children born through reproductive donation: a longitudinal study of psychological adjustment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 23. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12015.
  • Jadva V, Casey P, Blake L. & Golombok S. (2012). Surrogacy families 10 years on: Relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children’s understanding of their surrogacy origins. Human Reproduction. 27, 3008-14.
  • Jadva, V. Imrie, S. (2013). Children of surrogate mothers: Psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy. Human Reproduction. 29 (1), 90-96
  • Imrie, S. & Jadva V. (2014). The long-term experiences of surrogates: relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements. Reprod Biomed Online. 2014 Jul 5. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2014.06.004.
  • Jadva, V., Imrie, S., & Golombok, S. (2015). Surrogate mothers 10 years on: A longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing and relationships with the parents and child. Human Reproduction, 30(2) 373-9. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deu339
  • Ilioi, E., Blake, L., Jadva, V., Roman, G., & Golombok, S. (2016). The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: A longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
  • Blake, L., Carone, N., Slutsky, J., Raffanello, E., Ehrhardt, A., & Golombok, S. (2016). Gay fathers through surrogacy: Relationships with surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children’s origins. Fertility & Sterility, 106, 1503-1509.
  • Golombok, S., Ilioi, E., Blake, L., Roman, G., & Jadva, V. (2017). A longitudinal study of families formed through reproductive donation: Parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment at age 14. Developmental Psychology. 53 (10), 1966-1977.
  • Blake, L., Carone, N., Raffanello, E., Slutsky, J., Ehrhardt, A., & Golombok, S. (2017). Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood. Human Reproduction, 32(4), 860-867.
  • Golombok, S., Blake, L., Slutsky, J., Raffanello, E., Roman, G., & Ehrhardt, A. (2017). Parenting and the adjustment of children born to gay fathers through surrogacy. Child Development, 89(4), 1223-1233.
  • Lamba, N., Jadva, V., Kadam, K., & Golombok, S. (2018) The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates. Human Reproduction 33 (4), 646–653.
  • Zadeh, S., Ilioi, E. C., Jadva, V., & Golombok, S. (2018). The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation. Human Reproduction, 33(6), 1099–1106.
  • Jadva, V., Gamble, N. and Prosser, H. (2018). Cross-border and domestic surrogacy in the UK context: An exploration of practical and legal decision-making. Human Fertility DOI: 10.1080/14647273.2018.1540801
  • Jadva, V., Gamble, N. Prosser, H., and Imrie, S. (2019) Parent’s relationship with their surrogate during pregnancy and after the birth in cross border and domestic surrogacy arrangements:  comparisons by sexual orientation and location. Fertility and Sterility.111, 562–570.

Further publications

  • Susan Golombok, Modern Families – Parents and Children in New Family Forms, Cambridge University Press 2015.
  • Jadva, V., Murray, C., Lycett, E., MacCallum, F. & Golombok, S. (2003) Surrogacy: The experiences of surrogate mothers. Human Reproduction, 18, No 10, 2196-2204.
  • MacCallum, F., Lycett, E., Murray, C., Jadva, V. & Golombok, S. (2003) Surrogacy: The experience of commissioning couples. Human Reproduction, 18, No 6, 1334-1342.
  • Golombok, S., Murray, C., Jadva, V., MacCallum, F.& Lycett, E. (2004) Families created through surrogacy arrangements: Parent-child relationships in the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 40, 400-411.
  • Golombok, S., MacCallum, F., Murray, C., Lycett, E. & Jadva, V. (2006) Surrogacy families: Parental functioning, parent-child relationships and children’s psychological development at age 2. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47, No 2, 213-222.
  • Golombok, S., Murray, C., Jadva, V., Lycett, E., MacCallum, F. & Rust, J. (2006) Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: Consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3. Human Reproduction, 21, 1918-1924.
  • Golombok, S., Casey, P., Readings, J., Blake, L., Marks, A. & Jadva, V. (2011) Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 47, No. 6, 1579-1578

Lopamudra Goswami, Griffiths University, Australia

  • Goswami, L., Rotabi, K. S., & Bromfield, N. F. (2014). Force, fraud, coercion and exploitation: Abuses in intercountry adoption contrasted against what Indian women acting as surrogate mothers have to say about their experiences. In Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy. The Hague, Netherlands (pp. 11-13).
  • Rotabi, K.S. & Goswami, L. (2016). International surrogacy rights and needs of surrogate mothers. In C. Baglietto, N. Cantwell, & M. Dambach (Eds.), Responding to illegal adoptions: A professional handbook. (pp. 172 – 180). Geneva, Switzerland: International Social Service.
  • Rotabi, K.S. & Goswami, L. (2016). Perspectives of women who have completed a global surrogacy contract. In K. S. Rotabi, & N. F. Bromfield (Eds), From Intercountry Adoption to Commercial Global Surrogacy: A Human Rights History and New Fertility Frontiers. Ashgate Press, Surrey, England.

Debra Wilson, University of Canterbury, New Zealand)

Michael Wells-Greco, Charles Russell Speechlys SA, Geneva, Switzerland

  • Book: M. Wells-Greco, Legal status of children arising from inter-country surrogacy (Eleven International, 2015).
  • Book chapter: Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law (M. Wells-Greco, Laura Martinez Mora), "The cross-border recognition of parent child relationship statuses (parentage), including international surrogacy arrangements", Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Internationaal Recht - Nr. 144 - One Century Peace Palace, from Past to Present - KNVIR Preadviezen, November 2017.
  • Book chapter: Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law (M. Wells-Greco, Laura Martinez Mora), "The cross-border recognition of parent child relationship statuses (parentage), including international surrogacy arrangements", Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Internationaal Recht - Nr. 144 - One Century Peace Palace, from Past to Present - KNVIR Preadviezen, November 2017.
  • HCCH: The Parentage / Surrogacy Project

Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, UN Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Please access the Special Rapporteur’s webpage and the documents relating to surrogacy.

Sital Kalantry, Cornell Law School

  • Audio:

Dame Lucy Morgan Theis

  • Audio:

Sir James Munby